Reducing Justice Involvement For People with Mental Illness.


Note: Some resources are listed more than once if applicable to more than one intercept point
The Growth of Incarceration in the U.S.
  • The National Academies released a short video that illustrates the findings of the NRC report The Growth of Incarceration in the United States: Exploring Causes and Consequences. The nation's reliance on imprisonment has not clearly improved public safety and may have had large unwanted consequences for society. A change in course is needed. View the video here.
John Oliver on Mental Illness in America (The John Oliver Show, October 4, 2015)
  • On 10/4/15, John Oliver talks about mental illness in America, incorporating an excellent review of the literature with his own unique humorous style. Watch the segment here.
Justice Department Reaches Agreement with Los Angeles County to Implement Sweeping Reforms on Mental Health Care and Use of Force Throughout the County Jail System (Justice News, August 5, 2015)
  • The Justice Department has reached a comprehensive settlement agreement with the county of Los Angeles and the Los Angeles County Sheriff to protect prisoners from serious suicide risks and excessive force in the Los Angeles County Jails. Read the full story here.
National Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices (NREPP)
  • SAMHSA’s Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality has launched a new endeavor at the National Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices (NREPP). In addition to reviewing programs received during the open submission process, NREPP will conduct independent literature reviews to add programs with strong evidence bases to the registry. The registry link is here.
New Efforts To Help People With Mental Illness Get Treatment Instead Of Jail Time”
  • On August 4, 2015, NPR hosted a broadcast entitled “New Efforts To Help People With Mental Illness Get Treatment Instead Of Jail Time.” Guests included Dr. Fred Osher, Tom Van Hemert (CIT Coordinator, VA), Evelyn Lundberg Stratton (former justice on the Ohio Supreme Court) and Pete Earley (author of Crazy: A Father's Search Through America's Mental Health Madness," was a finalist for a Pulitzer Prize in 2007 and father of an adult son diagnosed with bipolar disorder). Click here to listen to the broadcast.
Probation May Sound Light, but Punishments Can Land Hard (NY Times, August 2, 2015)
  • New York Times writer Shaila Dewan talks about the life complications associated with being on probation that can sometimes derail a stable life for a non-violent offender.
State Profiles of Health Care Information for the Criminal Justice System
  • Developed by the Legal Action Center (with funding from BJA), this website includes a map of the United States that allows the user to explore how each state has implemented health information technology for the criminal justice population. Click here to access the website.

Federal Policy

Bureau of Justice Assistance: Justice and Mental Health Collaboration Program
  • The Justice and Mental Health Collaboration Program was created by the Mentally Ill Offender Treatment and Crime Reduction Act of 2004. The purpose of the program is to increase public safety by facilitating collaboration among the criminal justice, juvenile justice, mental health treatment, and substance abuse systems to increase access to treatment for this unique group of offenders. This website provides a wealth of useful information including funding announcements, notifications of upcoming webinars, news updates and links to training and TA opportunities.
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA)

Mental Health and Justice-Related Online Clearinghouses

Blueprints for Violence Prevention (University of Colorado, Boulder)
  • The Blueprints mission is to identify truly outstanding youth violence and drug prevention programs that meet a high scientific standard of effectiveness. In doing so, Blueprints serves as a resource for governments, foundations, businesses, and other organizations trying to make informed judgments about their investments in violence and drug prevention programs. Blueprints staff systematically and continuously review the research on violence and drug abuse programs to determine which are exemplary and grounded in evidence. To date, it has assessed more than 900 programs. Blueprints' standards for certifying model and promising violence prevention programs are widely recognized as the most rigorous in use.
Crime Solutions
  • The Office of Justice Programs' uses rigorous research to determine what works in criminal justice, juvenile justice, and crime victim services. Research on program effectiveness is reviewed and rated by expert reviewers. The site provides easily understandable ratings based on the evidence that indicates whether a program achieves its goals. Includes information on more than 200 justice-related programs.
Criminal Justice/Mental Health Consensus Project
  • The homepage for the Consensus Project, a "national effort to help local, state, and federal policymakers and criminal justice and mental health professionals improve the response to people with mental illnesses who come into contact with the criminal justice system."
  • Directory of Programs for the Consensus Project provides a searchable database of local collaborative criminal justice and mental programs throughout the US.
  • The Consensus Project also provides resources such as Justice Center publications, a research/publication library, legislative resources and technical assistance tools pertaining to mental health and criminal justice.
  • A Collaboration Assessment Tool enables leaders in corrections or mental health organizations to assess their current level of collaboration and chart a course for improving collaboration in four categories: knowledge base, systems, services, and resources.
Council of State Governments' Justice Center
  • The homepage of The Council of State Governments Justice Center, "a national nonprofit organization that serves policymakers at the local, state, and federal levels from all branches of government." The staff "provides practical, nonpartisan advice and consensus-driven strategies-informed by available evidence-to increase public safety and strengthen communities."
  • They also run a Justice Reinvestment project with the goal of data-driven solutions to reduce corrections spending and reinvest savings in strategies that can decrease crime and strengthen neighborhoods.
Louis de la Parte Florida Mental Health Institute (FMHI), University of South Florida
  • FMHI is a Criminal Justice, Mental Health, and Substance Abuse Technical Assistance Center. It functions similarly to a Center of Excellence in Florida.
Mental Health America
  • MHA is "the country's leading nonprofit dedicated to helping ALL people live mentally healthier lives." This page contains information about their mission, mental health info, network-affiliates, and ways to take action.
National Alliance on Mental Health
National Center on Criminal Justice and Disability
  • A project of the Arc, the NCCJD is the first national effort of its kind to bring together both victim and suspect/offender issues involving people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (or I/DD) under one roof. The NCCJD will serve as a national clearinghouse for information and training on the topic of people with I/DD as victims, witnesses and suspects or offenders of crime. The Arc will partner with a broad spectrum of criminal justice professionals, including those in the law enforcement, legal and disability fields at the national, state and local levels to create safer lives for people with I/DD who become involved in the criminal justice system. The NCCJD’s products and services include:
    • Training and technical assistance (including web-based and on-site training)
    • On-line resource library (including fact sheets, current research, state-by-state database of resources and relevant laws and legislation and directory of expert attorneys, witnesses, forensic interviewers and victim advocates
    • White papers, literature reviews and reports to promote identification and evaluation support of promising practices
    • Public awareness via a robust web site housing a national resource library and issue-specific marketing/communication strategies
National Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices (NREPP)
  • NREPP is a searchable online registry of more than 210 interventions supporting mental health promotion, substance abuse prevention, and mental health and substance abuse treatment.
SAMHSA’s GAINS Center for Behavioral Health and Justice Transformation
  • Homepage of the GAINS Center, whose main focus is "expanding access to community based services for adults diagnosed with co-occurring mental illness and substance use disorders at all points of contact with the justice system." GAINS stands for gathering information, assessing what works, interpreting/integrating the facts, networking, and stimulating change.

Pennsylvania Mental Health/Criminal Justice Agencies and Service Directories

Crime statistics for PA
  • The PA State Police issue annual reports that summarize much of this data. Alternately one can customize an excel dataset for arrests, officer casualties on the job, disposition of offenders, crimes reported, property and arson crimes detailed, and demographic characteristics of victims. Possible fields include timeframe with monthly detail, UCR offense codes, geographic area, adult and juvenile demographic data, and other fields related to the preceding categories.
Mental Health Services and the Criminal Justice System in Pennsylvania (Joint State Government Commission)
  • This report reviews the structure of the mental health system in Pennsylvania, the various programs, policies, and procedures currently in place to assist persons with mental illness and makes recommendations to improve the delivery of mental health services by the Departments of Corrections, Drug and Alcohol Programs, and Public Welfare and the Commonwealth’s 48 county mental health and intellectual disability programs. Special attention has been paid to the provision of mental health services to persons involved in the criminal justice system. Additionally, this report recommends the codification of the Mental Health Procedures Act.
Network of Care
  • This website is a mental health repository with county specific information about services, laws, and links to support groups and other personal advocacy resources. Their online library includes an overview of evidence-based practices and other educational topics in the mental health field.
Office of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services (OMHSAS)
  • The OMHSAS Mission and Vision is that every individual served by the Mental Health and Substance Abuse Service system will have the opportunity for growth, recovery and inclusion in their community, have access to culturally competent services and supports of their choice, and enjoy a quality of life that includes family members and friends.
Pennsylvania Commission on Crime and Delinquency
  • Official website for PCCD, including links to a wide variety of criminal justice programs and community collaborations, as well as grant announcements.
Pennsylvania Map of CJAB Counties
  • An interactive map of Pennsylvania counties, providing the name and contact information for each Criminal Justice Advisory Board (CJAB).
Pennsylvania Recovery and Resilience – Statewide Initiatives
  • Adult justice related services, including contact information, the statewide strategic plan, and workgroup and conference publications.
Southeastern PA Regional Mental Health Services Coordination Office - Forensics
  • Contains contact information regarding training and technical assistance, as well as helpful publications related to the Sequential Intercept Model and forensic services in southeastern Pennsylvania

Highlights of State and Local Jail Diversion Efforts from Outside PA

Connecticut Community Forensic Services
  • Listing and description of all diversion efforts across all intercepts within the Connecticut Department of Mental Health and Addiction Services, including contact information.
Florida Association of Drug Court Professionals (FADCP)
  • Homepage of the FADCP, which is "involved in many activities that benefit drug court professionals and the communities they serve. Training, drug testing, case transfers and tracking legislation are a few of the activities in which FADCP engages."
Mental Health Report Card of King County
  • The "Mental Health Report Card" used by the King County Washington Mental Health, Chemical Abuse and Dependency Services documents progress in meeting relevant client outcomes.
Ohio Criminal Justice Coordinating Center of Excellence
  • The goal of the Ohio CJ/CCoE is for each county in the State to develop an array of programs that will divert people with mental disorders from jail and keep people with mental disorders in treatment through the utilization of the sequential intercept model.
USF Criminal Justice Mental Health & Substance Abuse Technical Assistance Center
  • This Technical Assistance Center at the University of South Florida assists counties with grant preparation and evaluation, projects the impact of proposed interventions and serves as an information clearinghouse for counties and State interagency work groups.

Training and Education Opportunities

Creating a Trauma-Informed Criminal Justice System for Women: Why and How
  • This publication conceptualized the Sequential Intercept Model (SIM) as a way to create trauma-informed systems for females with criminal justice involvement. The strategy concentrates on five intercept points that women could have with the criminal justice system. At each point assistance is offered to these women that enable them to begin their personal restoration. The five intercept points described are: law enforcement and emergency services; arrest and initial court hearing; jails, prisons, and specialty courts; discharge planning—reentry to community from jails or prisons; and community corrections (probation or parole).
Hearing Voices Curriculum: Complete training and curriculum package
  • Hearing Voices That Are Distressing is a complete training/curriculum package in which participants use headphones for listening to a specially designed recording. During this simulated experience of hearing voices, participants undertake a series of tasks including social interaction in the community. This curriculum has been developed to raise awareness of the difficulties faced by some people with mental illness and is designed for a wide range of mental health and other professionals including mental health administrators, policy makers, and police officers.
National Alliance on Mental Illness PA
  • NAMI PA provides various opportunities for training and education as well as specific forensics training for criminal justice professionals and a one day Criminal Justice Symposium held yearly.
Transition from Jail to Community (TJC) Implementation Toolkit
  • The National Institute of Corrections and the Urban Institute announce the release of the Transition from Jail to Community (TJC) Implementation Toolkit. This web-based learning resource is designed to guide jurisdictions through implementation of the TJC model, in whole or in part. The Toolkit serves as a hands-on resource for users interested in jail reentry, whether in a criminal justice or community-based organization. This link will take you to the Urban Institute page where the toolkit is available.
Working With Women Who Perpetrate Violence (National Resource Center on Justice Involved Women)
  • This NRCJIW practice guide summarizes the available research on female perpetrated violence. While information in this area is still quite limited, there is a growing body of evidence to suggest that females who engage in violence are not a homogenous group and that there are some important differences in the context and expression of violent behavior across gender. This document examines a host of personal, contextual, cultural, and victimization-related factors among females charged with intimate partner violence and other violent crimes. Recommendations for assessment and intervention are provided.

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Sequential Intercept 1: Law Enforcement

Crisis Intervention Teams (CIT) in Law Enforcement

CIT International
  • CIT International is a non-profit membership organization whose primary purpose is to facilitate understanding, development and implementation of Crisis Intervention Team programs worldwide. Their website provides information about CIT training, conferences, news, and research publications.
CIT for Youth
  • CIT for Youth aims to build effective community partnerships and coordination, so that communities can responsibly support youth with mental health needs and their families-an outcome that benefits everyone involved. Recognizing this, communities across the country have begun to take action by expanding their CIT programs to address the specific needs of youth. CIT for Youth provides training to law enforcement officers to help prevent mental health crises and to help de-escalate crises when they occur.
Crisis Intervention Teams: A Frontline Response to Mental Illness in Corrections
  • The tools, strategies, and techniques that will allow corrections staff, mental health service providers, and advocates to work together to develop and implement a crisis intervention team (CIT) are presented
Law Enforcement Advancing Data and Science
NAMI CIT Technical Assistance Resource Center
  • Articles, reports, links and upcoming conferences related to Crisis Intervention Training
Police 3x5 Crisis Intervention Quick Referral Cards
  • This set of nine 3x5 cards are provided to San Antonio Texas Crisis Intervention Team officers during their initial 40 hour training. They are provided as handy reference tools and updated before every new CIT class.
Screening for Human Trafficking
  • The landmark Trafficking Victims Protection Act made trafficking in persons a federal crime in 2000, but the greatest obstacle to rescuing victims of human trafficking is identifying them. To make identifying these people easier—and subsequently, getting them the services and support they need while also generating evidence against their traffickers—the Vera Institute of Justice created a screening tool to be used by victim service providers and law enforcement when faced with someone who may be a victim of human trafficking. The tool, a 30-topic questionnaire that was tested by service providers and validated by Vera researchers, is the result of a two-year study( funded by the National Institute of Justice.
University of Memphis CIT Center
  • The Memphis CIT model is considered an evidenced-based practice for police response to individuals with mental illness and has been utilized as a template for CIT programs throughout the US and even in other countries. Their website has a wide variety of information regarding the program, highlights of which include a description of its core elements and the CIT booking stat sheets used by other CIT programs, both of which may be of use to departments as they seek to implement their own program. Also featured is a clickable map of CIT program descriptions throughout the US.

Websites for CIT programs throughout the US

Memphis Police Department – The "Memphis Model"
Bucks County, PA
Calcasieu Parish Sheriff, LA
Houston, TX
Laurel Highlands, PA
Miami-Dade County, FL
Philadelphia, PA
Pittsburgh, PA
Tucson, AZ

Other Law Enforcement Strategies for Handling Mental Health Crises

Los Angeles County Department of Mental Health – Law Enforcement Teams
  • Description of the collaborative mental health/law enforcement efforts regarding mobile emergency response teams, including the Law Enforcement Teams among others.
MCES Mobile Crisis Intervention Service
  • Montgomery County Emergency Service, Inc. (MCES) is a non-profit hospital founded in 1974 and is nationally renowned for its innovative programs to assist law enforcement agencies in dealing with mental health, behavioral and substance abuse issues, including their Mobile Crisis Intervention Service.
Mental Health First Aid
  • Mental Health First Aid is a public education program that helps the public identify, understand, and respond to signs of mental illnesses and substance use disorders. Mental Health First Aid USA is managed, operated, and disseminated by three national authorities -- the National Council for Community Behavioral Healthcare, the Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, and the Missouri Department of Mental Health.

Community Partners in Preventing Arrest of Mentally Ill Persons

Family Training and Advocacy Center
  • Official website of the Philadelphia Department of Behavioral Health and Intellectual Disability Services Family Training and Advocacy Center (FTAC), which provides support to families and family groups dealing with a family member's behavioral health and/or addiction issues. Among its many activities, FTAC provides training to criminal justice staff.
Housing Rapid Response (Portland, Oregon)
  • • Official website of HRR, a collaboration between homeless outreach staff and the Portland Police Department to identify homeless individuals with repeated arrests. HRR participants are referred to Central City Concern for housing and treatment via the City of Portland’s Office of Neighborhood Involvement. Almost all participants have active chemical addictions or untreated mental illnesses.
Project H.O.M.E.
  • Official website of the Philadelphia-based Project H.O.M.E., which is aimed at curbing criminal justice involvement by addressing its root causes, namely homelessness and poverty.

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Sequential Intercept 2: Initial Detention & Initial Court Hearings
Adult Behavioral Health program at CASES (NYC)
  • CASES' adult behavioral health programs aim to end the cycle of arrest, confinement, release, and re-arrest of mentally ill persons by providing access to adequate community treatment and support. CASES offers a variety of programs as an alternative to prison which include elements of education, mental health and substance abuse treatment, housing, and employment training.
Chesterfield County (VA) Dual Treatment Track
  • Official website of Chesterfield County's Dual Treatment Track, including a description of the program, contact information and answers to frequently asked questions. The Dual Treatment Track is a post-booking jail diversion option for dually diagnosed incarcerated offenders. By diverting offenders with co-occurring disorders from jail to a pretrial community supervision program, the Dual Treatment Track ensures safety to the community with intensive supervision while the offender is participating in an integrated treatment program for people with co-occurring disorders.
Crime and Justice Institute
  • The website provides information regarding training and assessment tools designed to reduce recidivism and improve public safety.
Drug Treatment Alternative to Prison (DTAP)
  • The first prosecution-led residential drug treatment diversion program in the country, the program diverts nonviolent felony drug offenders to community-based residential treatment.
Miami-Dade County (FL) Post-Booking Jail Diversion Program
  • Frequently asked questions for the county court jail diversion program of Miami-Dade County (FL), which occurs 24-48 hours after initial detention and before arraignment.
New Britain/Bristol (CT) Women's Treatment and Support Diversion Program
  • Press release from 2007 describing the Women's Treatment and Support Diversion Program in New Britain and Bristol (CT), expanding their statewide diversion efforts.
The Ohio Risk Assessment System (ORAS)
  • The ORAS is a dynamic risk/needs assessment system to be used with adult offenders. It offers criminal justice actors the ability to assess individuals at various decision points across the criminal justice system at various stages of criminal justice processing.
Pretrial Justice Center for Courts
  • The website provides Information and resources for jurisdictions seeking to implement a pretrial risk assessment tool.

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Sequential Intercept 3: Jail and Court

Specialty Courts for Mentally Ill Offenders

Adult Mental Health Treatment Courts Database
  • The GAINS Center has developed a comprehensive database to identify the existing mental health courts in the United States. As a living document, the information included in the database will be updated as needed. It includes: the location of each mental health court, the year established, target participants (e.g. felony, misdemeanor, violent/non), approximate annual enrollments (or total enrollments), and necessary contact information. This database was completed in December 2012.
Key statistics for corrections are now available on
  • BJS has updated their website to include easy access to trend data from BJS’s core data collections. This might be useful for understanding where your community fits in the national context and for funding proposals.
Checklist for the “Suicide-Resistant” Design of Correctional Facilities (2011)
  • The safe housing of suicidal inmates is an important component to a correctional facility’s comprehensive suicide prevention policy. Facility officials are strongly encouraged to address specific architectural and environmental issues to ensure that inmates placed on suicide precautions are housed in “suicide-resistant” cells. A checklist has been provided by the National Center on Institutions and Alternatives.
Developing a Mental Health Court: An Interdisciplinary Curriculum (2015)
  • The CSG Justice Center’s Developing a Mental Health Court: An Interdisciplinary Curriculum is a comprehensive online resource for individuals or interdisciplinary groups interested in starting, improving, or simply learning about mental health courts. Among its extensive features, the curriculum contains a series of flexible modules with comprehensive presentations, activities, and additional resources.
Directory of Pennsylvania Mental Health Courts (can also be generated for other states)
Judges' Leadership Initiative (JLI)
  • The JLI was created in 2004 to bring judges from all levels of state judiciaries together to improve judicial understanding of, and responses to, individuals with mental illnesses in our nation’s courts. The JLI is developing a training module for judges on mental illnesses and the criminal justice system. This training will provide judges with knowledge about mental illnesses and co-occurring substance use disorders, how these health issues are likely to impact an individual’s interactions with the criminal justice system, and what judges can do to achieve just and efficient outcomes in this context. Currently the JLI provides a variety of on-line resources for judges
Incarceration Trends
  • The Vera Institute released a new (December, 2015) interactive tool aimed at informing the public debate on mass incarceration by focusing on its front door and providing easily accessible information on jail populations in every U.S. county, including growth from 1970 to 2014, and racial and gender disparities in incarceration rates. The tool can be found here.
Map of Adult Mental Health Courts in Pennsylvania
  • Link to map, as well as other resources related to the Mental Health Court model around Pennsylvania, provided by PCCD.
Mental Health Court Performance Measures
  • The National Center for State Courts has identified 14 performance measures that offers court managers and administrators a tool to monitor the performance of mental health courts. These measures were designed by the NCSC with guidance from national experts and field tested by four courts across the country. The measures are designed to be used as a management tool, to monitor program performance, and to demonstrate accountability to funding agencies, court leaders, external partners, and the public. This webinar introduced the core and supplemental measures and outlined "next steps" for the NCSC involving this initiative, as well as how interested courts can implement the proposed measures.
Program Profiles of Specialty Courts Compiled by

Promising Programs for In-Prison Drug Treatment (not specifically intended for inmates with mental illness)

Amity In-Prison Therapeutic Community
  • This page from the Crime Solutions website provides an example of a program rated "Promising" in results, based on more than one study. The program provides intensive treatment to male inmates with substance abuse problems during the last 9 to 12 months of their prison term. The volunteer participants must reside in a dedicated program housing unit during treatment.
Delaware KEY/Crest Substance Abuse Programs
  • This page from the Crime Solutions website provides an example of a program rated "Promising" in results, based on more than one study. This involves a prison-based therapeutic community for offenders with a history of substance abuse and a residential work release center that allows offenders to continue their treatment as they transition to the community. Both programs are part of the Delaware Department of Correction substance abuse treatment continuum.
Forever Free
  • Forever Free is a drug treatment program for women who abuse drugs and are incarcerated. The intervention aims to reduce drug use and improve behaviors of women during incarceration and while they are on parole.
Minnesota Prison-based Chemical Dependency Treatment
  • Prison-based chemical dependency treatment for offenders who are chemically abusive or dependent.

Other Corrections-Related Resources

National Institute of Corrections (NIC)
  • "The National Institute of Corrections is a center of learning, innovation and leadership that shapes and advances effective correctional practice and public policy." This website offers links to training, services, research assistance, the NIC community and an overview of current projects. NIC publishes Corrections & Mental Health, a new electronic publication covering correctional mental health practices.
Now Available: Webinar Recording for Developing Gender-Informed Disciplinary Policies
  • Click here to listen to a recorded version or click here to access the presentation slides for Developing Gender-Informed Disciplinary Policies in Women's Correctional Facilities, a June 18, 2014 webinar co-sponsored by the U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Assistance and the National Institute of Corrections.
PEERSTAR LLC Forensic Peer Support
  • Pennsylvania-based, specialized pecialized forensic peer support services in prisons and in the community to individuals involved with the criminal justice system who are suffering from mental illnesses and/or substance abuse disorders.
PREA and LGBTI Rights
  • This article focuses on both the basic and the more progressive best practices available for safely managing lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex (LBGTI) inmates. Effective management sometimes means that stereotypes need to be torn down through education and training. For example, LBGTI inmates are far more likely to be victims of abuse in jail than to be the perpetrators, despite beliefs to the contrary among some corrections personnel. Transgender inmates in particular face the highest risk of harassment, abuse, or exploitation while in custody. Jails and their staff members need accurate information to better provide for the safety and other needs of gender-nonconforming inmates.
Reentry Education Framework toolkit
  • Designed by RTI International for the U.S. Department of Education’s (ED) Office of Career, Technical, and Adult Education, the Reentry Education Framework highlights five critical components of an effective reentry system: program infrastructure, strategic partnerships, education services, transition processes, and sustainability. Each component can be tailored to the specific context and needs of the education provider, its partners, and the target population. RTI International and the ED have developed a number of resources relating to the framework. This tool kit offers guidelines, tools, and resources to help education providers implement the Framework.
Seeking Safety for Incarcerated Women
  • Seeking Safety is a cognitive-behavioral intervention for individuals with co-occurring posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders. Seeking Safety has been used for a number of different populations, including incarcerated women. Seeking Safety for incarcerated women is rated ”Promising“ by Crime Solutions. Evaluation results suggest that the program significantly reduced PTSD and depression scores in program participants.
State Profiles of Health Care Information for the Criminal Justice System
  • The Council of State Governments has a new interactive website that includes state-by-state profiles on the health system and health care coverage options available in each state and in the District of Columbia. The state profiles represent the culmination of a major research effort to identify key health system agencies and points of contact in every state.
Suicide Prevention in Custody – The National Center on Institutions and Alternatives (NCIA)
  • NCIA’s mission is to help create a society in which all persons who come into contact with human service or correctional systems are provided with the care necessary to live their lives to the best of their abilities. Their Suicide Prevention in Custody on-line resources include guidelines for developing and assessing suicide prevention policies in correctional institutions and publications related to suicide prevention. NCIA also provides training to institutional staff about suicide prevention. detailed services.
Wellness Recovery Action Plan (WRAP)
  • Wellness Recovery Action Plan (WRAP) is a manualized group intervention for adults with mental illness that is suitable for use among correctional populations. WRAP guides participants through the process of identifying and understanding their personal wellness resources ("wellness tools") and then helps them develop an individualized plan to use these resources on a daily basis to manage their mental illness.

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Sequential Intercept 4: Reentry
Corporation for Supportive Housing – Supporting People Involved with Criminal Justice
  • The Corporation for Supportive Housing works with criminal justice professionals to use supportive housing to break the cycle of incarceration, homeless shelters, psychiatric hospitals, detox and drug treatment programs, and other emergency service systems for people with complex mental health problems. Website contains links to their Returning Home Initiative.
Criminal Justice Toolkit from Mental Health America
  • Mental Health America is a nonprofit dedicated to helping all people live mentally healthier lives. This toolkit is designed to help advocates understand how their state can help reduce recidivism and promote recovery for individuals with mental health and substance use conditions who are involved in the criminal justice system by maintaining health benefits and providing appropriate reentry supports.
Evaluation of the Serious and Violent Offender Reentry Initiative (SVORI)
Guidelines for the Successful Transition of People with Behavioral Health Disorders from Jail and Prison
  • The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration’s (SAMHSA) GAINS Center for Behavioral Health and Justice Transformation recently released Guidelines for the Successful Transition of People with Behavioral Health Disorders from Jail and Prison. Developed in collaboration with the Council of State Governments Justice Center and with support from SAMHSA and the Bureau of Justice Assistance, the guidelines promote the criminal justice partnerships that are necessary to develop successful approaches for identifying individuals in need of services, determining what services those individuals need, and addressing these needs during transition from incarceration to community-based treatment and supervision. For a full PDF of the guidelines, click here. For a summary of the guidelines, click here.
National Reentry Resource Center
  • The National Reentry Resource Center, administered by the Bureau of Justice Assistance, U.S. Department of Justice, provides education, training, and technical assistance to states, tribes, territories, local governments, service providers, non-profit organizations, and corrections institutions working on prisoner reentry.
PA Department of Corrections Interactive Reentry Resources Map
  • This interactive reentry resource map includes county-specific information for offenders reentering society following incarceration.
Program Profiles of Promising Reentry Programs Complied by
  • This webpage lists various Reentry programs from around the country. These programs address substance abuse, connection to resources, etc. and while they are not noted as "evidence-based," they have been reviewed to be Promising. This rating is defined as "[having] some evidence indicating they achieve their intended outcomes. Additional research is recommended."
Reentry Policy Council
  • The Reentry Policy Council of the Justice Center was established "to assist state government officials grappling with the increasing number of people leaving prisons and jails to return to the communities they left behind." The council compiled descriptions of reentry programs and initiatives from across the country into a searchable database.
Reentry Program Publications List of the BJA
  • The Bureau of Justice Assistance has compiled a list of publications related to reentry. They are categorized as process, outcome and other reports.
SOAR (SSI/SSDI Outreach, Access, and Recovery)
  • Funded by SAMHSA, this national project is designed to increase access to the disability income benefit programs administered by the Social Security Administration for eligible adults who are homeless or at risk of homelessness and have a mental illness and/or a co-occurring substance use disorder
Transition from Jail to Community (TJC) Implementation Toolkit
  • The National Institute of Corrections and the Urban Institute announce the release of the Transition from Jail to Community (TJC) Implementation Toolkit. This web-based learning resource is designed to guide jurisdictions through implementation of the TJC model, in whole or in part. The Toolkit serves as a hands-on resource for users interested in jail reentry, whether in a criminal justice or community-based organization. This link will take you to the Urban Institute page where the toolkit is available.

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Sequential Intercept 5: Community Corrections & Community Support

Agencies Providing Community Support to Persons with Mental Illness

Adult Behavioral Health program at CASES (NYC)
  • CASES' adult behavioral health programs aim to end the cycle of arrest, confinement, release, and re-arrest of mentally ill persons by providing access to adequate community treatment and support. CASES offers a variety of programs as an alternative to prison which include elements of education, mental health and substance abuse treatment, housing, and employment training.
Adult Probation and Parole Department Mental Health Protocol (Chester County, PA)
  • Brief description of a collaborative effort among Adult Probation, the MHMR Board and the Base Service Units to provide mental health screenings, case consultation, intensive supervision, treatment and medication monitoring for those clients who are court ordered to participate.
The Annapolis Coalition on the Behavioral Health Workforce
  • The Annapolis Coalition is dedicated to improving the recruitment, retention, training and performance of the prevention and treatment workforce in the mental health and addictions sectors of the behavioral health field. Although the Coalition does not address workers in the criminal justice system directly, the resources provided on this website may be applied broadly to include such workers.
The Employer-Driven Model and Toolkit: Strategies for Developing Employment Opportunities for Justice-Involved Individuals
  • Corrections professionals have several critical missions with one overriding goal: to ensure that individuals who leave supervision do not reoffend and do not return to prison. Research confirms that employment is important to successful reentry, so training and job placement programs are essential to connecting individuals to the labor market upon their release.
Florida Alcohol and Drug Abuse Association (FADAA)
  • FADAA represents over 100 of Florida's premiere community-based substance abuse and co-occurring treatment and prevention agencies, managing entities, community anti-drug coalitions and over 3,000 individual members.
Florida Council for Community Mental Health (FCCMH)
  • FCCMH is a statewide association of 70 community-based mental health and substance abuse agencies.
Florida Partners in Crisis (FLPIC)
  • FLPIC provides services to individuals with mental illness and abuse disorders, as well as striving to reduce the involvement of these individuals in the criminal justice system.
GAINS Center: Evidence-Based Practices for Community Supports
  • The Gains Center identifies Supported Employment, Supportive Housing, Illness Self-Management and Recovery, Trauma Specific Interventions, and Integrated Treatment for Co-Occurring Mental Health and Substance Use Disorders, all as evidence-based practices. Links to articles with more detail on each is provided.
HUD Resources for Homeless Persons
  • Provides links for housing, food, and health care assistance agencies in your area.
Mapping America's rental housing crisis
  • No matter where you live, there's not enough affordable rental housing. Use the new Urban Institute interactive map to explore the extent of the problem in your county. This information may be useful for planning in your county as well as grant applications.
The Mental Health Association in Pennsylvania (MHAPA)
  • MHAPA reflects the ethnic and cultural diversity of the Commonwealth, works on behalf of the mental health of its citizens, instilling principles that facilitate recovery and resiliency of individuals and their families, through advocacy, education, and public policy.
Move to Opportunity” Housing Program Rated “No Effects” on Violent, Property or Drug Crime
  • Moving to Opportunity is a housing mobility demonstration program intended to help move families from high-poverty public housing to low-poverty private housing to improve their lives. This program is rated No Effects on Crime Solutions. The program was shown to have no significant long-term effects on violent, property, drug, or general crime arrests. Read more by clicking here.
Open Minds Open Doors (PA)
  • Open Minds Open Doors is a Mental Health Association of Pennsylvania initiative aimed at ending discrimination against people with mental illnesses. Open Minds Open Doors creates brochures and audio visual materials for use in educating and engaging audiences on the impact of stigma.
PEERSTAR LLC Forensic Peer Support
  • Pennsylvania-based specialized forensic peer support services in prisons and in the community to individuals involved with the criminal justice system who are suffering from mental illnesses and/or substance abuse disorders.
Pennsylvania Mental Health Consumers' Association (PMHCA)
  • PMHCA is a statewide member organization providing information, referrals and supports to people who are receiving services or in recovery from a mental illness in Pennsylvania.
Pennsylvania Peer Support Coalition
  • The Pennsylvania Peer Support Coalition is a statewide network of people who use their own mental health recovery experiences to support others.
Prize-based Incentive Contingency Management for Substance Abusers
  • A version of contingency management that provides adult substance abusers in community-based treatment with an opportunity to win prizes if they remain drug free.
Research Network on Mandated Community Treatment
  • Although the Network is no longer operating, the site provides contact information and published materials.
Supportive housing resources
  • NAMI has joined with the Technical Assistance Collaborative (TAC) and Consortium for Citizens with Disabilities (CCD) Housing Task Force to develop technical assistance materials which are being made available on the web. This website includes resources for:
    • State housing agencies
    • The disability community
    • State human services agencies
    • Housing developers
Wellness Recovery Action Plan (WRAP)
  • Wellness Recovery Action Plan (WRAP) is a manualized group intervention for adults with mental illness. WRAP guides participants through the process of identifying and understanding their personal wellness resources ("wellness tools") and then helps them develop an individualized plan to use these resources on a daily basis to manage their mental illness.

Program Profiles of Promising and Effective Community Corrections/Support Programs Complied by

  • Community Corrections
    • Hawaii Opportunity Probation with Enforcement
      • A community supervision strategy for substance-abusing probationers, particularly for those who have long histories of drug use and involvement with the criminal justice system and who are considered at high risk of failing probation or returning to prison.
    • New Jersey Community Resource Center
      • Nonresidential multiservice centers that facilitate parolees' successful reintegration back into the community by offering a combination of services and supervision. They serve as community-based alternative sanctions for technical parole violators or as a condition of parole on release from prison.
    • Philadelphia Low-Intensity Community Supervision
      • An experiment conducted to examine the effects of lowering the intensity of community supervision with low-risk offenders in an urban community.
    • Strategic Training Initiative in Community Supervision (STICS)
      • A job training program for probation officers to help them apply the risk-need-responsivity (RNR) model with probationers to reduce recidivism.
  • Community Support
    • Trauma Affect Regulation: Guide for Education and Therapy (TARGET)
      • A trauma-focused psychotherapy for the concurrent treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder and substance use disorders.
    • Thinking for a Change
      • Thinking for a Change is a cognitive-behavioral curriculum developed by the National Institute of Corrections that concentrates on changing the criminogenic thinking of offenders. T4C includes cognitive restructuring, social skills development, and the development of problem-solving skills. The program may be delivered to a variety of offenders (however, studies that have examined program effectiveness of T4C so far have included only samples of adult probationers). TC4 may be delivered to persons with mental illness, although it is not designed for them. Click here to view the full curriculum.
  • Pharmacological treatments for opioid addiction

Intervention Summaries of Community Programs from National Registry of Evidence-Based Programs and Practices.

(Posting of an intervention summary on NREPP does not constitute an endorsement. NREPP does not rate effectiveness of interventions. Users should read the Key Findings section of each summary to understand the research results for each program.)
  • Acceptance and Commitment Therapy
    • A contextually focused form of cognitive behavioral psychotherapy that uses mindfulness and behavioral activation to increase clients' psychological flexibility.
  • Cognitive Behavioral Social Skills Training (CBSST)
    • A program for middle-aged and older outpatients with chronic schizophrenia.
  • Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT)
    • A cognitive-behavioral treatment approach with two key characteristics: a behavioral, problem-solving focus blended with acceptance-based strategies, and an emphasis on dialectical processes.
  • Family Behavior Therapy
    • An outpatient behavioral treatment aimed at reducing drug and alcohol use in adults and youth along with common co-occurring problem behaviors such as depression, family discord, school and work attendance, and conduct problems in youth.
  • Friends Care
    • Friends Care is a stand-alone aftercare program for probationers and parolees exiting mandated outpatient substance abuse treatment.
  • ICCD Clubhouse Model
    • A day treatment program for rehabilitating adults diagnosed with a mental health problem using a therapeutic environment that includes responsibilities within the Clubhouse (e.g., clerical duties, food service), as well as through outside employment and education.
  • Interim Methadone (IM) Maintenance
    • A simplified methadone treatment program for opioid-dependent adults who are on waiting lists for comprehensive methadone treatment.
  • JOBS Program
    • Program is intended to prevent and reduce negative effects on mental health associated with unemployment and job-seeking stress, while promoting high-quality reemployment.
  • Living in Balance
    • A manual-based, comprehensive addiction treatment program that emphasizes relapse prevention.
  • Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT)
    • A program for adults with recurrent major depressive disorder. MBCT integrates components of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction and cognitive behavioral therapy.
  • Motivational Interviewing
    • A goal-directed, client-centered counseling style for eliciting behavioral change by helping clients to explore and resolve ambivalence.
  • Pathway's Housing First Program
    • Program is designed to end homelessness and support recovery for individuals who are homeless and have severe psychiatric disabilities and co-occurring substance use disorders.
  • Psycho-educational Multifamily Groups
    • A treatment modality designed to help individuals with mental illness attain as rich and full participation in the usual life of the community as possible.
  • Recovery Training and Self-Help
    • A group aftercare program for individuals recovering from opioid addiction.
  • TCU Mapping-Enhanced Counseling
    • A communication and decision-making technique designed to support delivery of treatment services by improving client and counselor interactions.
  • Boston Consortium Model: Trauma-Informed Substance Abuse Treatment for Women
    • Program provides a fully integrated set of substance abuse treatment and trauma-informed mental health services to low-income, minority women with co-occurring alcohol/drug addiction, mental disorders, and trauma histories.
  • Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing
    • A one-on-one form of psychotherapy that is designed to reduce trauma-related stress, anxiety, and depression symptoms associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
  • Seeking Safety
    • A present-focused treatment for clients with a history of trauma and substance abuse. The treatment was designed for flexible use: group or individual format, male and female clients, and a variety of settings (e.g., outpatient, inpatient, residential).
  • Trauma Recovery and Empowerment Model (TREM)
    • A fully manualized group-based intervention designed to facilitate trauma recovery among women with histories of exposure to sexual and physical abuse.
  • Other Web Resources Related to Intercept 5

    State Profiles of Health Care Information for the Criminal Justice System
    • The Council of State Governments has a new interactive website that includes state-by-state profiles on the health system and health care coverage options available in each state and in the District of Columbia. The state profiles represent the culmination of a major research effort to identify key health system agencies and points of contact in every state.

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